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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     .
Commission file number: 1-11311
https://cdn.kscope.io/c8fd0e50163df889f8234f8844c1b911-learcorporationa15.jpg
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
13-3386776
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

21557 Telegraph Road, Southfield, MI 48033    
(Address of principal executive offices)            
(248) 447-1500        
(Registrant's telephone number including areas code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
 
LEA
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
 
 
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
As of June 29, 2019, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $8,512,234,516. The closing price of the common stock on June 29, 2019, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange, was $139.27 per share.
As of January 31, 2020, the number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock was 60,472,179 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain sections of the registrant’s Notice of Annual Meeting of Stockholders and Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in May 2020, as described in the Cross Reference Sheet and Table of Contents included herewith, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.




LEAR CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CROSS REFERENCE SHEET AND TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page Number
or Reference
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
SUPPLEMENTARY ITEM.
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk (included in Item 7)
 
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
________________________
(1)
Certain information is incorporated by reference, as indicated below, to the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in May 2020 (the "Proxy Statement").
(2)
A portion of the information required is incorporated by reference to the Proxy Statement sections entitled "Election of Directors" and "Directors and Corporate Governance."
(3)
Incorporated by reference to the Proxy Statement sections entitled "Directors and Corporate Governance — Director Compensation," "Compensation Discussion and Analysis," "Executive Compensation," "Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation" and "Compensation Committee Report."
(4)
A portion of the information required is incorporated by reference to the Proxy Statement section entitled "Directors and Corporate Governance — Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners, Directors and Management."
(5)
Incorporated by reference to the Proxy Statement sections entitled "Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions" and "Directors and Corporate Governance — Independence of Directors."
(6)
Incorporated by reference to the Proxy Statement section entitled "Fees of Independent Accountants."





PART I
ITEM 1 – BUSINESS
In this Report, when we use the terms the "Company," "Lear," "we," "us" and "our," unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, we are referring to Lear Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries. A substantial portion of the Company’s operations are conducted through subsidiaries controlled by Lear Corporation. The Company is also a party to various joint venture arrangements. Certain disclosures included in this Report constitute forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. See Item 1A, "Risk Factors," and Part IIItem 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsForward-Looking Statements."
BUSINESS OF THE COMPANY
General
Lear Corporation is a leading Tier 1 supplier to the global automotive industry. We supply seating, electrical distribution systems and electronic modules, as well as related sub-systems, components and software, to all of the world's major automotive manufacturers. At Lear, we are Making every drive betterTM by providing technology for safer, smarter and more comfortable journeys, while adhering to our values - Be Inclusive. Be Inventive. Get Results The Right Way.
We have 257 manufacturing, engineering and administrative locations in 39 countries and are continuing to grow our business in all automotive producing regions of the world, both organically and through complementary acquisitions. Our manufacturing footprint reflects more than 143 facilities in 22 low cost countries.
We use our product, design and technological expertise, global reach and competitive manufacturing footprint to achieve the following financial goals and objectives:
Continue to deliver profitable growth, balancing risks and returns;
Maintain a strong balance sheet with investment grade credit metrics; and
Consistently return excess cash to our stockholders.
Our business is organized under two reporting segments: Seating and E-Systems. Each of these segments has a varied product and technology range across a number of component categories:
Seating — Our Seating segment consists of the design, development, engineering, just-in-time assembly and delivery of complete seat systems, as well as the design, development, engineering and manufacture of all major seat components, including seat covers and surface materials such as leather and fabric, seat structures and mechanisms, seat foam and headrests. Further, we have capabilities in active sensing and comfort for seats, utilizing electronically controlled sensor and adjustment systems and internally developed algorithms.
E-Systems — Our E-Systems segment consists of the design, development, engineering and manufacture of complete electrical distribution systems, as well as sophisticated electronic control modules, electrification products, connectivity products and software solutions for the cloud, vehicles and mobile devices.
Electrical distribution systems route networks and electrical signals and manage electrical power within the vehicle for all types of powertrains - from traditional internal combustion engine ("ICE") architectures to the full range of hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric architectures. Key components in our electrical distribution portfolio include wire harnesses, terminals and connectors and junction boxes for both ICE and electrification architectures that require management of higher voltage and power.
Electronic control modules facilitate signal, data and power management within the vehicle and include the associated software required to facilitate these functions. Key components in our electronic control module portfolio include body control modules, wireless receiver and transmitter technology and lighting and audio control modules, as well as products specific to electrification and connectivity trends.
Electrification products include on board battery chargers, power conversion modules, high voltage battery management systems and high voltage power distribution.
Connectivity products include gateway modules and communication modules to manage both wired and wireless networks and data in vehicles. In addition to fully functional electronic modules, we offer software that includes cybersecurity, advanced vehicle positioning for automated and autonomous driving applications, roadside modules that communicate real-time traffic information and full capabilities in both dedicated short-range communication and

3



cellular protocols for vehicle connectivity. Our software solutions also include Xevo Journeyware, a thin-client platform for the cloud, vehicles and mobile devices that enables consumer e-commerce, multi-media applications and enterprise services to improve performance and safety, deliver an artificial intelligence-enhanced driving experience and provide new monetization opportunities for us and the automotive manufacturers, and Xevo Market, an in-vehicle commerce and service platform that connects customers with their favorite brands and services by delivering highly-contextual sales offers through vehicle touch screens and vehicle-branded mobile applications.
We serve all of the world's major automotive manufacturers across both our Seating and E-Systems businesses, and we have automotive content on more than 400 vehicle nameplates worldwide. It is common to have both seating and electrical content on the same and multiple vehicle platforms with a single customer. Further, the seat is becoming a more dynamic and integrated system requiring increased levels of electrical and electronic integration and facilitating the convergence of our Seating and E-Systems businesses.
We are focused on profitably growing our businesses and have implemented a strategy designed to deliver industry-leading, long-term financial returns. This strategy includes disciplined investing in our business to grow and enhance our product offerings, strategically focusing our portfolio on products (including software and services) to support emerging trends, such as autonomy, connectivity, electrification and shared mobility, and leveraging an industry-leading cost structure to expand our operating margins.
Environmental, social and governance ("ESG") considerations are integrated into our business strategy. Our ESG strategy and activities are reviewed and approved by senior management and overseen by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of our Board of Directors. Our sustainability efforts are based on three pillars: social responsibility, economic prosperity and environmental stewardship.
From a social responsibility standpoint, our emphasis is on supporting the communities in which we do business; promoting wellness and safety; and embracing diversity, employee engagement and human rights. With respect to supporting our communities, we are especially proud of our employee volunteer efforts, such as our employee-led educational campaign, "Focus on the Drive," to increase awareness and decrease the incidence of distracted driving. With respect to employee engagement, we strive to build a "Together We Win" culture globally around four key elements: (1) leadership, (2) work environment, (3) employee involvement and (4) teaming, using metrics such as quality, employee absenteeism, health and safety performance, and operational efficiency to measure engagement.
The economic prosperity pillar of our sustainability strategy supports our participation in the trend toward more environmentally friendly products, thereby generating returns for our stockholders. This pillar consists not only of producing "green" products such as SoyFoamTM, a substitute for certain petroleum-based products, but also creating technologies that facilitate safety through enhanced vehicle connectivity and environmentally friendly transportation alternatives such as hybrid and electric vehicles. Of particular note are those products in our E-Systems segment which facilitate hybrid and electric vehicles such as on board battery chargers, battery management systems and high voltage wiring and terminals and connectors.
From an environmental stewardship standpoint, we focus on the efficient use of energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the prevention of pollution, safe and sustainable production processes, and the promotion of a safe and healthy workplace for our employees. We set targets where appropriate and monitor them through our environmental management systems.
Our businesses benefit globally from leveraging common operating standards and disciplines, including world-class product development and manufacturing processes, as well as common customer support and regional infrastructures. Our core capabilities are shared across component categories and include high-precision manufacturing and assembly with short lead times, management of complex supply chains, global engineering and program management skills, the agility to establish and/or transfer production between facilities quickly and a unique customer-focused culture. Our businesses utilize proprietary, industry-specific processes and standards, leverage common low-cost engineering centers and share centralized operating support functions, such as logistics, supply chain management, quality and health and safety, as well as all major administrative functions.
Available Information on our Website
Our website address is http://www.lear.com. We make available on our website, free of charge, the periodic reports that we file with or furnish to the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), as well as all amendments to these reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with or furnished to the SEC. We also make available on our website or in printed form upon request, free of charge, our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (which includes specific provisions for our executive officers), charters for the standing committees of our Board of Directors and other information related to the Company. We are not including the information contained on our website as a part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this Report.

4



The SEC maintains an internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information related to issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
History
Lear was founded in Detroit in 1917 as American Metal Products, a manufacturer of seating assemblies and other components for the automotive and aircraft industries, and was incorporated in Delaware in 1987. Through a management-led buyout in 1988, Lear Corporation established itself as a privately-held seat assembly operation for the North American automobile market with annual sales of approximately $900 million. We completed an initial public offering in 1994 and developed into a global supplier through organic growth and a series of acquisitions.
In May 1999, we acquired UT Automotive, Inc. ("UT Automotive") from United Technologies Corporation. UT Automotive was a leading supplier of automotive electrical distribution systems. The acquisition of UT Automotive represented our entry into automotive electrical and electronic systems and was the basis for our current E-Systems segment.
We have subsequently augmented our internal growth plans with selective acquisitions to expand our component capabilities and global footprint, as well as expand our technology portfolio:
In May 2012, we acquired Guilford Mills, a leading supplier of automotive seat and interior fabric, for approximately $243 million.
In January 2015, we acquired Everett Smith Group, Ltd., the parent company of Eagle Ottawa, LLC ("Eagle Ottawa"), the world's leading provider of leather for the automotive industry, for approximately $844 million.
In August 2015, we acquired intellectual property and technology from Autonet Mobile, a developer of wireless communication software and devices for automotive applications.
In November 2015, we acquired Arada Systems Inc., an automotive technology company that specializes in vehicle-to-vehicle ("V2V") and vehicle-to-infrastructure ("V2I" and together with V2V, "V2X") communications.
In April 2017, we acquired Grupo Antolin's automotive seating business for approximately $292 million.
In January 2018, we acquired Israel-based EXO Technologies, a leading developer of differentiated GPS technology providing high-accuracy positioning solutions for autonomous and connected vehicle applications.
In April 2019, we acquired Xevo Inc. ("Xevo"), a Seattle-based, global leader in connected car software, for approximately $322 million. Xevo is a supplier of software solutions for the cloud, vehicles and mobile devices that are deployed in millions of vehicles worldwide.
Industry and Strategy
We supply all vehicle segments of the automotive light vehicle original equipment market in every major automotive producing region in the world. Our sales are driven by the number of vehicles produced by the automotive manufacturers, which is ultimately dependent on consumer demand for automotive vehicles, and our content per vehicle. Global automotive industry production volumes declined 1% in 2018 and another 6% in 2019 to 87.1 million units.
Details on light vehicle production in certain key regions for 2019 and 2018 are provided below. Our actual results are impacted by the specific mix of products within each market, as well as other factors described in Item 1A, "Risk Factors."
(In thousands of units)
2019 (1)
 
2018 (1) (2)
 
% Change
North America
16,289.9

 
16,959.0

 
(4%)
Europe and Africa
21,672.2

 
22,640.7

 
(4%)
Asia
44,550.3

 
47,649.2

 
(7%)
South America
3,122.4

 
3,248.5

 
(4%)
Other
1,432.2

 
1,971.7

 
(27%)
Total
87,067.0

 
92,469.1

 
(6%)
(1)
Production data based on IHS Automotive.
(2)
Production data for 2018 has been updated to reflect actual production levels.

5



Details on light vehicle production in certain emerging markets for 2019 and 2018 are provided below.
(In thousands of units)
2019 (1)
 
2018 (1) (2)
 
% Change
China
23,058.2

 
25,307.7

 
(9%)
India
4,167.8

 
4,679.5

 
(11%)
Brazil
2,803.8

 
2,777.6

 
1%
Russia
1,603.5

 
1,632.7

 
(2%)
(1)
Production data based on IHS Automotive.
(2)
Production data for 2018 has been updated to reflect actual production levels.
Details on our sales in certain key regions for 2019 and 2018 are provided below.
(In millions)
2019
 
2018
 
% Change
North America
$
7,365.5

 
$
7,660.6

 
(4%)
Europe and Africa
7,785.5

 
8,726.9

 
(11%)
Asia
3,968.3

 
4,040.0

 
(2%)
South America
691.0

 
721.0

 
(4%)
Total
$
19,810.3

 
$
21,148.5

 
(6%)
 
 
 
 
 
 
China (consolidated)
$
2,579.7

 
$
2,781.5

 
(7%)
China (non-consolidated)
1,166.6

 
1,044.9

 
12%
Key trends that specifically affect our business include automotive manufacturers’ utilization of global vehicle platforms, increasing demand for luxury and performance features, including increasing levels of electrical and electronic content, and China’s emergence as the single largest major automotive market in the world.
Another key trend benefiting our business is the shift toward crossover and sport utility vehicles. Our content on such vehicles, especially those for which our Seating segment supplies products, can be significantly higher than our average content per vehicle. Crossover and sport utility vehicle production has grown to approximately 37% of total vehicle production in 2019, up from 23% of total vehicle production five years ago. China has been a major driver of this trend, where crossover and sport utility vehicle production now comprises approximately 41% of total vehicle production, up from 20% of total vehicle production five years ago.
Our strategy is built on addressing these trends and the major imperatives for success as an automotive supplier: quality, cost and efficiency, and innovation and technology. We have expanded key component and software capabilities through organic investment and acquisitions to ensure a full complement of the best solutions for our customers. We have restructured, and continue to align, our manufacturing and engineering footprint to attain a leading competitive cost position globally. We have established or expanded activities in new and growing markets, especially China, in support of our customers’ growth and global platform initiatives. These initiatives have helped us achieve our financial goals overall, as well as a more balanced regional, customer and vehicle segment diversification in our business.
In addition, we believe that demand for efficiency, enhanced communications and safety are driving the technology trends of autonomy, connectivity and electrification. These trends, along with the trend toward shared mobility, are likely to be at the forefront of our industry for the foreseeable future with each converging long-term toward fully autonomous, connected, electric or hybrid electric vehicles:
Autonomy/Advanced Driver Assistance - Customer and consumer demands are evolving from safety features and systems that protect vehicle occupants when a crash occurs to advanced driver assistance systems that help prevent crashes by assisting in the vehicle’s operation under certain conditions. The development of automated intervention uses many of the same core technologies that will enable vehicles to drive autonomously under an increasing variety of driving conditions.
Connectivity - Customer and consumer demands for continuous communication and information exchange with the vehicle are increasing. What began with consumer demand to extend and integrate mobile connectivity into the vehicle by connecting mobile devices with vehicle infotainment systems is evolving such that the vehicle itself will have an embedded, direct line of wireless communication connecting the vehicle with various networks (e.g., cellular, infrastructure, satellite, etc.) and other vehicles. We expect these trends to continue, making the vehicle a constantly

6



connected device, receiving and transmitting data through a variety of signals, which communicate directly with on-board vehicle systems.
Electrification - Demand for more energy efficient vehicles is increasing, both from automotive manufacturers to meet stricter fuel economy and emissions standards and from a growing segment of consumers to reduce the environmental impact of automobiles. This requires further use of electronically controlled and assisted powertrains and related components to improve fuel efficiency and the adoption of alternative energy powertrains, such as 48-volt mild hybrid, full hybrid, hybrid electric and high power battery electric, that facilitate electrification of the vehicle, as well as the use of lighter weight materials throughout the vehicle.
Shared Mobility - As vehicle utilization increases and ride-sharing becomes more relevant, customer and consumer demands for more services and an improved mobility experience are also increasing.
Regulation is also a major influence on these trends, as government mandates (e.g., for vehicles to meet minimum fuel economy and emissions standards or be equipped with certain safety-related components) are driving vehicle design and technology plans.
We are well positioned with respect to these trends as we design and manufacture products across our entire E-Systems portfolio that are aligned with the trends toward autonomy, connectivity, electrification and shared mobility. Our product lines offer growth opportunities that are subject to the risks and opportunities associated with these trends but are ultimately dependent on global vehicle production volumes.
Furthermore, our seats are an active part of the vehicle safety system. As a result of our innovative product design and technology capabilities, we are able to provide seats with enhanced safety features, such as the active head restraint and seat structures that withstand collision impact in excess of what is demanded by regulatory agencies. We have developed products and materials to reduce cost and enhance seat design and packaging flexibility, including our mini recliners and micro adjust tracks. Another way in which we are well positioned to benefit from this trend-related growth is our belief that the seat system will become increasingly more sophisticated, dynamic and connected to both the occupants and the vehicle. The seat is the logical focal point for monitoring the driver and passenger and for facilitating feedback between the vehicle and the occupants.
We believe that the convergence of these technology trends and eventual adoption of autonomous vehicles will benefit both our Seating and E-Systems segments. We believe that autonomous vehicles will have seat designs and requirements that are far more flexible and demanding in both autonomous and piloted driving states. Further, more active monitoring of the driver and the driver’s position and physical state will be required to manage the transitions between autonomous and piloted driving conditions. A demand for mobility services and on-demand transportation from providers such as Uber or Lyft is helping to drive interest and growth in these technology trends, particularly fully autonomous vehicles. The increasing prevalence of mobility services will potentially create a new segment of autonomous vehicle fleet customers with unique vehicle technology and design needs, including more flexible, durable and connected seating solutions for a wide range of passengers. Not only will autonomous vehicles need to be fully connected and networked to maximize their safety and efficiency, their power consumption will be significantly higher to support the array of sensors and processing power required to operate such vehicles. This will allow us to take further advantage of our ability to design and offer efficient power management solutions.
In January 2019, we launched Lear Innovation Ventures ("LIV") Possibilities, which provides a framework for us to invest in advanced development teams, partnerships and early stage technologies by working with venture capital firms, accelerators and incubators; providing direct capital to start-ups and internal innovation initiatives.
Seating Segment
Lear is a recognized global leader in complete automotive seat systems and key individual seat components. The Seating segment consists of the design, development, engineering, just-in-time assembly and delivery of complete seat systems, as well as the design, development, engineering and manufacture of all major seat components, including seat covers and surface materials such as leather and fabric, seat structures and mechanisms, seat foam and headrests. Further, we have capabilities in active sensing and comfort for seats, utilizing electronically controlled sensor and adjustment systems and internally developed algorithms. We believe that we have the most complete set of component offerings of any automotive seating supplier and are a market leader in every automotive producing market in the world. Overall, our global manufacturing and engineering expertise, low-cost footprint, complete component capabilities, quality leadership and strong customer relationships provide us with a solid platform for continued growth in this segment.
We produce seat systems that are fully assembled and ready for installation in automobiles and light trucks. Seat systems are generally designed and engineered for specific vehicle models or platforms. We develop seat systems and components for all vehicle segments from compact cars to full-size sport utility vehicles. We are the world leader in luxury and performance automotive seating, providing craftsmanship, elegance in design, use of innovative materials and industry-leading technology

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required by premium brands, including Alfa Romeo, Audi, BMW, Cadillac, Ferrari, Jaguar Land Rover, Lamborghini, Lincoln, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz and Porsche.
We have been executing a strategy for vertical integration of key seat components to enhance growth, improve quality, increase profitability and support our current market position in just-in-time seat assembly. In this regard, our capabilities in seat structures and mechanisms include complete development and manufacturing capabilities in every major automotive producing region in the world. In addition, we have developed standardized seat structures and mechanisms that can be adapted to multiple segments to minimize investment costs. We believe that our low-cost manufacturing footprint in seat structures and mechanisms and our precision engineered seat mechanism expertise are competitive advantages.
We have also expanded our seat cover operations in low-cost markets, including precision cutting, assembly, sewing and lamination of seat fabric, entered the fabric business (largely through our acquisition of Guilford Mills) and added industry-leading leather design, development and manufacturing capabilities (through our acquisition of Eagle Ottawa). On a global basis, we can provide a full range of seat cover capabilities and design solutions, including the use of unique leather and fabric applications. We believe that the combination of these capabilities in seating surface materials leads the industry.
Craftsmanship and Design (Crafted by LearTM)
We believe that our broad portfolio of capabilities, including advanced design and material integration skills, is a differentiating competitive advantage for us. Our team of experts at our Center for Craftsmanship in Southfield, Michigan has developed a portfolio of product technologies that deliver differentiated design, craftsmanship and comfort, as well as sustainable products. Through this dedicated studio, we are leveraging our unique position to be an industry leader in differentiated design and facilitating customer interactions with designers and engineers working collaboratively to create innovative solutions early in the design process. The breadth of our portfolio and depth of our design expertise allow us to have early involvement in the automotive manufacturer’s design process and the opportunity to better integrate all seating components to provide differentiated design comfort, quality and overall value for the end consumer. We have also developed a proprietary craftsmanship process called Harmonic Precision that synthesizes all of our component expertise and technologies with our customers’ design visions to create an objective analysis of the impact that the final design and execution will have in the marketplace. We believe that our unmatched component capabilities, design know-how, global manufacturing presence and our Crafted by LearTM portfolio of enabling and sustainable technologies uniquely position us to bring innovative designs into production with the highest level of craftsmanship.
Intelligent Seating (INTUTM Seating)
The seat is emerging as an integral device facilitating the direct connection between drivers and passengers and the vehicle. We believe that we are the only seating supplier with both global capabilities in all major seat components and global electronics development (including software), manufacturing and integration. We believe that the seat will increasingly integrate electronics, not only for motorized control, but for dynamic sensing and response. We believe that intelligent and dynamic seating solutions, which we call INTUTM Seating, will provide future benefits as consumers and automotive manufacturers demand seats that can sense key attributes of a driver and passenger and communicate these attributes within the vehicle network, as well as to external networks. We have developed active sensing and comfort seat capabilities, utilizing electronically controlled sensor and adjustment systems and internally developed algorithms. We are also developing technologies that will monitor certain bio-metric readings through seat sensors with a high level of accuracy and reliability. These seat designs automatically and continuously optimize the user experience. Our seats will intuitively anticipate and dynamically adjust to the occupant's needs and preferences related to health and wellness, comfort and safety. Our INTUTM technology is well-aligned with current industry trends, such as connectivity. We believe that integrating our electronic capabilities into our seating products is essential to succeeding in this dynamic and changing environment.
Adaptive Seating Architecture (ConfigurE+TM)
Our 2019 Automotive News PACE Award winning ConfigurE+TM adaptive seating solution provides enhanced flexibility and cargo management for crossover vehicles, sport utility vehicles and passenger vans, while delivering seat electrification via full-length, floor-mounted tracks instead of wires. We believe that we are the only supplier capable of providing these fully integrated, mechanical and electrical solutions. ConfigurE+TM is well-suited for ever-changing consumer lifestyles and is enabled by proprietary, advanced interface modules integrated into the seat structure and tracks. ConfigurE+TM optimizes functionality, such as storage and transport, seat removal and executive seating. This technology is well-aligned with current industry trends, such as autonomy and shared mobility. 
Manufacturing
Our seat assembly facilities use lean manufacturing techniques, and our finished products are delivered to the automotive manufacturers on a just-in-time basis, matching our customers’ exact build specifications for a particular day, shift and

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sequence thereby reducing inventories to optimum levels. Facilities are typically located adjacent to or near our customers’ assembly sites and are capable of managing complex, in-series, sequencing, batch and/or modular assembly requirements. We utilize the latest industry innovations and automated technologies. We also launched an intensive employee engagement initiative, called Together We Win, which is achieving global scalability and successfully driving cultural advances, with increases in first time quality and decreases in absenteeism, material costs and average build times per vehicle.
Core Capabilities
We maintain state-of-the-art testing, instrumentation and data analysis capabilities. We own industry-leading seat validation test centers featuring crashworthiness, durability and full acoustic and sound quality testing capabilities. Together with computer-controlled data acquisition and analysis capabilities, these centers provide precisely controlled laboratory conditions for sophisticated testing of parts, materials and systems. In addition, we incorporate many convenience, comfort and safety features into our designs, including advanced whiplash prevention concepts, integrated restraint seat systems and side impact airbags. We also invest in our computer-aided engineering design and computer-aided manufacturing systems.
 
Customers
The top five customers of our Seating segment are: General Motors, Daimler, Volkswagen, Ford and Fiat Chrysler.
Competition
Based on independent market studies and management estimates, we believe that we hold the #2 position in seat systems assembly globally on the basis of revenue with strong positions in all major markets. We are a leading supplier of various components produced for complete seat systems.
Our primary competitor in this segment globally is Adient, plc. Other competitors in this segment include Faurecia S.A., Toyota Boshoku Corporation, TS Tech Co., Ltd. and Magna International Inc., which have varying market presence depending on the region, country or automotive manufacturer. Peugeot S.A., Toyota Motor Corporation and Honda Motor Co. Ltd. hold equity ownership positions in Faurecia S.A., Toyota Boshoku Corporation and TS Tech Co., Ltd., respectively. Other automotive manufacturers maintain a presence in the seat systems market through wholly owned subsidiaries or in-house operations. In seat components, we compete with the seat systems suppliers identified above, as well as certain suppliers that specialize in particular components.
Technology
We have developed products and materials to improve comfort and ease of adjustment, promote customization and styling flexibility, increase durability and reliability, enhance safety, expand the usage of environmentally friendly materials and reduce cost and weight. ProActive™ Seating uses proprietary MySeat by Lear™ technology powered by our TheraMetric™ analytical process. This process is derived from our research to provide a driver with a seating position that promotes better posture and cumulative wellness benefits. ProActive™ Seating has been endorsed by the American Chiropractic Association, International Chiropractors Association, World Federation of Chiropractic and Loomis Institute of Enzyme Nutrition. Our Lear Crafted Comfort Connect™ and Advanced Comfort Systems™ are adjustable cushions, seat backs and side bolsters which support correct posture and provide improved comfort and appearance. Our Guilford TeXstyle™ fabrics provide customizable fabric engineered to improve the vehicle experience and durability, and our TeXstyle™ Enhance offerings provide a range of secondary embellishment technologies to enhance standard fabrics, enabling unique design within an array of fabric choices. Our proprietary, anti-soiling performance leather finishing technology, Ansolé™, improves durability and protects against fading. Our head restraints provide improved comfort and safety with adjustability. Our high speed smart fold technology is a regulated high speed folding adjustment mechanism that delivers premium convenience while maintaining leading safety and comfort benefits. Our mini recliners and micro adjust tracks are seat mechanisms, which provide precision movement and facilitate interior packaging space flexibility. Our Dynamic Environmental Comfort Systems™ and ComforTune™ technologies offer weight reductions of 30% - 40%, as compared to current foam seat designs. Produced for multiple global customers, our SoyFoam™ reduces our carbon footprint by 614,000 pounds of carbon dioxide per year.
For additional factors that may impact our Seating segment’s business, financial condition, operating results and/or cash flows, see Item 1A, "Risk Factors."


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E-Systems Segment
The E-Systems segment consists of the design, development, engineering and manufacture of electrical distribution systems, electronic modules and related components, and software for light vehicles globally. We are a leader in signal distribution and power management within the vehicle for all types of powertrains - from traditional ICE architectures to the full range of hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric architectures. We have connectivity hardware and software capabilities, including cybersecurity expertise, that facilitate secure, wireless communication between the vehicle’s electrical and electronic architecture and external networks, as well as other vehicles. We also offer software and services for the cloud, vehicles and mobile devices that enable consumer e-commerce, multi-media applications and enterprise services among other new and emerging applications.
Electrical Distribution Systems
Electrical distribution systems route networks and electrical signals and manage electrical power within the vehicle for all types of powertrains, including traditional ICE architectures and the full range of hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric architectures, supporting the current industry trend toward electrification. Key components in the electrical distribution system include wire harnesses, terminals and connectors and junction boxes for both ICE and electrification architectures that require management of higher voltage and power.
Wire harness assemblies are a collection of wiring and terminals and connectors that link all of the various electrical and electronic devices within the vehicle to each other and/or to a power source. Wire harness assemblies are a collection of individual circuits fabricated from raw and insulated wire, which is automatically cut to length and terminated during the manufacturing process. Individual circuits are assembled together on a jig or table, inserted into connectors and wrapped or taped to form wire harness assemblies. The assembly process is labor intensive, and as a result, production is generally performed in low-cost labor sites in Mexico, Honduras, Brazil, Eastern Europe, Africa, China, the Philippines and Thailand.
Terminals and connectors include conductive metal components and connector housings that join wire harness assemblies together at their respective end points or connect devices to wire harness assemblies. Terminals and connectors can vary significantly in size and complexity depending on the amount of power or data being transferred and the number of connections being made at any particular point in the electrical distribution system. Our terminals and connectors are currently manufactured in Germany, Eastern Europe, China and the United States.
Junction boxes are centrally located modules within the vehicle that contain fuses and/or relays for circuit and device protection and serve as a connection point for multiple wire harnesses. Junction boxes are manufactured in Mexico, Europe, Northern Africa, China and the Philippines with a proprietary, capital-intensive assembly process using printed circuit boards, a portion of which are purchased from third-party suppliers. Certain materials, particularly certain specialized electronic components, are available from a limited number of suppliers.
Electronics
In our E-Systems segment, we also design, develop, engineer and manufacture electronics, which control various functions within the vehicle, as well as develop and integrate the associated software for these electronic modules. Our electronic modules include body control modules, smart junction boxes, gateway modules, lighting control modules, audio domain controllers, amplifiers and communication modules that are applicable to all vehicle types. Our electronics business also includes electronic modules that are specific to hybrid and electric vehicles, such as on board battery chargers, power conversion modules, high voltage battery management systems and high voltage power distribution. Our engineering and development activities for electronics are in the United States (Southfield, Michigan and Northern California), Belgium, Germany, Spain, China and India. We assemble these modules using high-speed surface mount placement equipment in Mexico, Europe, Northern Africa, China and the Philippines.
Body control modules primarily control vehicle interior functions outside of the vehicle’s head unit or infotainment system. Depending on the vehicle’s electrical and electronic architecture, these modules can be either highly integrated, consolidating multiple functional controls into a single module, or focus on a specific function, such as seat position and comfort controls or the door zone control module which controls features such as window lift, door lock and power mirrors.
We develop and produce gateway modules, which facilitate secure access to, and communication with, all of the vehicle systems at a central point and translate various signals to facilitate data exchange across various vehicle domains. Our connectivity capabilities include communication modules which manage wireless communications over cellular, V2X, Bluetooth and WiFi and are connected to the vehicle networks. We develop and provide hardware and software for these products. We also have capabilities in high accuracy vehicle positioning through a cloud-computing-based system combined with software on vehicles to achieve high precision navigation solutions for our customers’ V2X and automated vehicle platforms.

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Our electronics product offerings also include lighting control modules, which provide the electronic control logic and diagnostics for increasingly advanced and complex vehicle lighting systems. We supply LED lighting control systems for vehicle interiors and exteriors. In addition, we offer audio electronics, including premium audio amplifiers and complete vehicle sound system development capabilities with advanced domain control and audio tuning.
The higher level of complexity and processing power in these electronic control modules is driving rapid increases in software requirements associated with these modules. Accordingly, we continue to build on our knowledge and capabilities in software in order to design and develop more complex and integrated electronic control modules capable of more efficiently managing the distribution of power and data signals through the vehicle.
Our software solutions also include Xevo Journeyware, a thin-client platform for the cloud, vehicles and mobile devices that enables consumer e-commerce, multi-media applications and enterprise services to improve performance and safety, deliver an artificial intelligence-enhanced driving experience and provide new monetization opportunities for us and the automotive manufacturers, and Xevo Market, an in-vehicle commerce and service platform that connects customers with their favorite brands and services by delivering highly-contextual sales offers through vehicle touch screens and vehicle-branded mobile applications.
Customers
The top five customers of our E-Systems segment are: Ford, Renault-Nissan, General Motors, Jaguar Land Rover and Volkswagen.
Competition
Our major competitors in electrical distribution systems include Aptiv PLC, Leoni AG, Molex Incorporated (a subsidiary of Koch Industries Inc.), Sumitomo Corporation, TE Connectivity and Yazaki Corporation. Our major competitors in electronic modules, including connectivity solutions, include Aptiv PLC, Continental AG, Denso Corporation, Harman International Industries, Incorporated (acquired by Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. in 2017), Hella AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, Valeo S.A. and Visteon Corporation.
Technology
Our complete electrical distribution system design capabilities, coupled with certain market-leading component technologies, allow access to our customers’ development teams, which provides an early indication of our customers’ product needs and enables us to develop system design efficiencies. Our ability to design and integrate electronic modules creates a competitive advantage as we support customers with complete electrical architecture development. The E-Systems segment is technology driven and typically requires higher investment as a percentage of sales than our Seating segment. Our expertise is developed and delivered by approximately 2,300 engineers across eighteen countries and is led by six global technology centers of excellence in Belgium, China, Germany, Spain and the United States (Southfield, MI and Seattle, WA) for each of our major product lines in this segment, which are described below.
Software remains a critical element of our E-Systems business. Software capabilities are becoming more important in the management of complex and highly sophisticated electrical architectures. Software within the vehicle is rapidly growing as a key element of technological innovation and a cost effective way to provide new features and functions. We currently employ more than 700 software engineers globally and are pursuing expansion of specialized capabilities in vehicle networking, control algorithms, cybersecurity and connectivity platforms and protocols.
In electrical distribution systems, our technology includes expertise in the design and use of alternative conductor materials, such as aluminum, copper-clad steel and other hybrid alloys. Alternative conductor materials can enable the use of ultra small gauge conductors, which reduce the weight and packaging size of electrical distribution systems. We also have developed proprietary manufacturing process technologies, such as our vertical manufacturing system that features three dimensional wire harness assembly boards. Our expertise in terminals and connectors technology facilitates our ability to implement these small gauge and alternative alloy conductors. We have developed advanced capabilities in aluminum terminals and aluminum wire termination, ultra small gauge termination and high voltage terminals and connectors. We have developed high packaging density in-line connectors and new small gauge terminals that will enable wire gauge reduction and provide our customers with smaller and lower cost solutions. Our high voltage terminals and connectors are a part of our advanced efficiency systems capabilities, and we have established a leading capability in power density (power per packaging size) that is being adopted by multiple automotive manufacturers. We have 650 patents issued or applied for in the advanced efficiency systems product technology area. These technologies are supported by our proprietary virtual proving grounds, which is an industry-leading suite of in-house developed tools and processes to significantly reduce the design, development and validation testing time and expense.

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In electronics, we are a market leader in smart junction box technology and began production of our Automotive News PACE Award winning Solid State Smart Junction Box™ in 2016. We are a leader in gateway module technology and have capabilities to enable our gateway and other electronic control modules to efficiently and securely manage the increasing amount of both wired and wireless signals running throughout, as well as within and outside of, the vehicle, including being first-to-market with an ethernet-enabled gateway module. In lighting, we have developed advanced technology electronic controls, including a Matrix LED Control System capable of individually dimming and switching on/off up to 100 LEDs. This system enables steerable light beams and other advanced lighting features and can be paired with driver assistance system sensors for functionality, such as automatic high beam management and obstacle highlighting. In audio, we have developed an ethernet audio bridging amplifier that facilitates faster processing of digital data at a lower cost. In high power electronics, we offer leading efficiency battery chargers and high voltage battery management systems.
For additional factors that may impact our E-Systems segment’s business, financial condition, operating results and/or cash flows, see Item 1A, "Risk Factors."
Customers
In 2019, General Motors and Ford, two of the largest automotive and light truck manufacturers in the world, accounted for 18% and 14% of our net sales, respectively. We supply and have expertise in all vehicle segments of the automotive market. Our sales content tends to be higher on those vehicle platforms and segments which offer more features and functionality. The popularity of particular vehicle platforms and segments varies over time and by regional market. We expect to continue to win new business and grow sales at a greater rate than overall automotive industry production. For further information related to our customers and domestic and foreign sales and operations, see Note 14, "Segment Reporting," to the consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
Our customers award business to their suppliers in a number of ways, including the award of complete systems, which allows suppliers either to manufacture components internally or to purchase components from other suppliers at their discretion. Certain of our customers also elect to award certain components directly to component suppliers and independent of the award of the complete system. We have been selectively expanding our component capabilities and investing in manufacturing capacity in low-cost regions in order to enhance our cost competitive structure and maximize our participation in such component sourcing.
Our customers typically award contracts several years before actual production is scheduled to begin. Each year, the automotive manufacturers introduce new models, update existing models and discontinue certain models and, periodically, even complete brands. In this process, we may be selected as the supplier on a new model, we may continue as the supplier on an updated model or we may lose a new or updated model to a competitor. Our sales backlog reflects estimated net sales over the next three years from formally awarded new programs, less lost and discontinued programs. This measure excludes the sales backlog at our non-consolidated joint ventures. As of January 2020, our 2020 to 2022 sales backlog is $2.7 billion, a decrease of 19% as compared to our sales backlog as of January 2019. Our current sales backlog reflects $0.8 billion related to 2020 and 65% and 35% related to our Seating and E-Systems segments, respectively. In addition, our 2020 to 2022 sales backlog at our non-consolidated joint ventures is $200 million. Our current sales backlog assumes volumes based on the independent industry projections of IHS Automotive as of December 2019 and internal estimates, a Euro exchange rate of $1.10/Euro and a Chinese RMB exchange rate of 7.00/$. This sales backlog is generally subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including vehicle production volumes on new and replacement programs and foreign exchange rates, as well as the timing of production launches and changes in customer development plans. For additional information regarding risks that may affect our sales backlog, see Item 1A, "Risk Factors," and Part II — Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Forward-Looking Statements."
We receive purchase orders from our customers that generally provide for the supply of a customer’s annual requirements for a particular vehicle model and assembly plant, or in some cases, for the supply of a customer’s requirements for the life of a particular vehicle model, rather than for the purchase of a specified quantity of products. Although most purchase orders may be terminated by our customers at any time, such terminations have been infrequent and have not had a material impact on our operating results. We are subject to risks that an automotive manufacturer will produce fewer units of a vehicle model than anticipated or that an automotive manufacturer will not award us a replacement program following the life of a vehicle model. To reduce our reliance on any one vehicle model, we produce automotive systems and components for a broad cross-section of both new and established models. However, larger cars and light trucks, as well as vehicle platforms that offer more features and functionality, such as luxury, sport utility and crossover vehicles, typically have more content and, therefore, tend to have a more significant impact on our operating performance. Our net sales for the year ended December 31, 2019, consisted of 33% passenger cars, 49% crossover and sport utility vehicles and 18% trucks and vans.
Our agreements with our major customers generally provide for an annual productivity price reduction. Historically, cost reductions through product design changes, increased manufacturing productivity and similar programs with our suppliers have generally offset these customer-imposed price reduction requirements. However, raw material, energy and commodity costs can be volatile. Although we have developed and implemented strategies to mitigate the impact of higher raw material, energy and commodity costs, these strategies, together with commercial negotiations with our customers and suppliers, typically offset only a portion of the adverse impact. Certain of these strategies also may limit our opportunities in a declining commodity environment. In addition, we are exposed to increasing market risk associated with fluctuations in foreign exchange as a result of our low-cost footprint and vertical integration strategies. We use derivative financial instruments to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. For additional information regarding our foreign exchange and commodity price risk, see Part II — Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Financial Condition — Foreign Exchange" and "— Commodity Prices."
Seasonality
Our principal operations are directly related to the automotive industry. Consequently, we may experience seasonal fluctuations to the extent automotive vehicle production slows, such as in the summer months when many customer plants close for model year changeovers, in December when many customer plants close for the holidays and during periods of high vehicle inventory. See Note 16, "Quarterly Financial Data," to the consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
Raw Materials
The principal raw materials used in our seat systems, electrical distribution systems and electronics are generally available and obtained from multiple suppliers under various types of supply agreements. Components such as fabric, foam, leather, seat structures and mechanisms, terminals and connectors and certain other components are either manufactured by us internally or purchased from multiple suppliers under various types of supply agreements. The majority of the steel used in our products is comprised of fabricated components that are integrated into a seat system, such as seat frames, recliner mechanisms, seat tracks and other mechanical components. Therefore, our exposure to changes in steel prices is primarily indirect, through these purchased components. With the exception of certain terminals and connectors, the materials that we use to manufacture wire harness assemblies are substantially purchased from suppliers, including extruded and insulated wire and cable. The majority of our copper purchases are comprised of extruded wire and cable that we integrate into electrical wire harnesses. In general, our copper purchases, as well as a significant portion of our leather purchases, are subject to price index agreements with our customers and suppliers. We utilize a combination of short-term and long-term supply contracts to purchase key components. We generally retain the right to terminate these agreements if our supplier does not remain competitive in terms of cost, quality, delivery, technology or customer support.
Employees
As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, our employment levels worldwide were approximately as follows:
Region
2019
 
2018
United States and Canada
10,100
 
9,700
Mexico
50,400
 
51,200
Central and South America
17,000
 
14,600
Europe and Africa
56,800
 
59,800
Asia
29,800
 
33,700
Total
164,100
 
169,000
A substantial number of our employees are members of unions or national trade organizations. We have collective bargaining agreements with several North American unions, including the United Auto Workers, Unifor, International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and Workers United. Each of our unionized facilities in the United States and Canada has a separate collective bargaining agreement with the union that represents the workers at such facility, with each such agreement having an expiration date that is independent of the other agreements. The majority of our employees in Mexico and Europe are members of industrial trade union organizations or confederations within their respective countries. Many of these organizations and confederations operate under national contracts, which are not specific to any one employer. We have occasionally experienced labor disputes at our plants. We have been able to resolve all such labor disputes and believe our relations with our employees are generally good.
See Item 1A, "Risk Factors — A significant labor dispute involving us or one or more of our customers or suppliers or that could otherwise affect our operations could adversely affect our financial performance," and Part II — Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Forward-Looking Statements."


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Intellectual Property
Worldwide, we have approximately 2,300 patents and patent applications pending. While we believe that our patent portfolio is a valuable asset, no individual patent or group of patents is critical to the success of our business. We also license selected technologies to automotive manufacturers and to other automotive suppliers. We continually strive to identify and implement new technologies for use in the design and development of our products.
Advanced technology development is conducted worldwide at our nine advanced technology centers and at our product engineering centers. At these centers, we engineer our products to comply with applicable safety standards, meet quality and durability standards, respond to environmental conditions and conform to customer and consumer requirements. Our global innovation and technology center located in Southfield, Michigan, develops and integrates new concepts and is our central location for consumer research, benchmarking, craftsmanship and industrial design activity.
We have numerous registered trademarks in the United States and in many foreign countries. The most important of these marks include LEAR CORPORATION® (including our stylized version thereof) and LEAR®, which are widely used in connection with our products and services. Our other principal brands include XEVO®, GUILFORD® and EAGLE OTTAWA®. ConfigurE+TM seating, INTUTM seating, LEAR CONNEXUSTM signal and data communications, EXOTM high-accuracy positioning, JOURNEYWARE® software, ProTec® active head restraints, SMART JUNCTION BOXTM technology, STRUCSURETM systems, AVENTINO® leather and TeXstyleTM fabrics are some of our other trademarks used in connection with certain of our product lines.
Environmental Matters
We are committed to sustainability in our operations and products. We adhere to local, state, federal and foreign laws, regulations and ordinances which govern activities or operations that may have adverse environmental effects. These laws, regulations and ordinances may impose liability for clean-up costs resulting from past spills, disposals or other releases of hazardous wastes. For a description of our outstanding environmental matters and other legal proceedings, see Note 13, "Commitments and Contingencies," to the consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
In addition, our customers are subject to significant environmentally focused state, federal and foreign laws and regulations that regulate vehicle emissions, fuel economy and other matters related to the environmental impact of vehicles. To the extent that such laws and regulations ultimately increase or decrease automotive vehicle production, such laws and regulations would likely impact our business. See Item 1A, "Risk Factors."
Furthermore, we currently offer products with green technology, such as SoyFoamTM, and are creating technologies that facilitate environmentally friendly transportation alternatives such as hybrid and electric vehicles. Our expertise, capabilities and environmental leadership are allowing us to expand our product offerings in this area.
Joint Ventures and Noncontrolling Interests
We form joint ventures in order to gain entry into new markets, expand our product offerings and broaden our customer base. In particular, we believe that certain joint ventures have provided us, and will continue to provide us, with the opportunity to expand our business relationships with Asian automotive manufacturers, particularly in emerging markets. We also partner with companies having significant local experience in commerce and customs, as well as capacity, to reduce our financial risk and enhance our potential for achieving expected financial returns. In some cases, these joint ventures may be located in North America or Europe and used to expand our customer relationships.
As of December 31, 2019, we had fourteen operating joint ventures located in five countries. Of these joint ventures, five are consolidated, and nine are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Twelve of the joint ventures operate in Asia, and two operate in North America (both of which are dedicated to serving Asian automotive manufacturers). Net sales of our consolidated joint ventures accounted for approximately 7% of our net sales in 2019. As of December 31, 2019, our investments in non-consolidated joint ventures totaled $120 million.
A summary of our non-consolidated operating joint ventures, including ownership percentages, is shown below. For further information related to our joint ventures, see Note 5, "Investments in Affiliates and Other Related Party Transactions," to the consolidated financial statements included in this Report.

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Country
Name
Ownership
Percentage
China
Beijing BHAP Lear Automotive Systems Co., Ltd.
50%
China
Guangzhou Lear Automotive Components Co., Ltd.
50
China
Jiangxi Jiangling Lear Interior Systems Co., Ltd.
50
China
Lear Dongfeng Automotive Seating Co., Ltd.
50
China
Changchun Lear FAWSN Automotive Seat Systems Co., Ltd.
49
China
Beijing Lear Dymos Automotive Systems Co., Ltd.
40
Honduras
Honduras Electrical Distribution Systems S. de R.L. de C.V.
49
India
Hyundai Transys Lear Automotive Private Limited
35
United States
Kyungshin-Lear Sales and Engineering LLC
49
ITEM 1A – RISK FACTORS
Our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows may be impacted by a number of factors. In addition to the factors affecting our business identified elsewhere in this Report, the most significant factors affecting our operations include the following:
Our industry is cyclical and a decline in the production levels of our major customers, particularly with respect to models for which we are a significant supplier, or the financial distress of one or more of our major customers could adversely affect our financial performance.
Our sales are driven by the number of vehicles produced by our automotive manufacturer customers, which is ultimately dependent on consumer demand for automotive vehicles, and our content per vehicle. The automotive industry is cyclical and sensitive to general economic conditions, including the global credit markets, interest rates, consumer credit and consumer spending and preferences. Automotive sales and production can also be affected by the age of the vehicle fleet and related scrappage rates, labor relations issues, fuel prices, regulatory requirements, government initiatives, trade agreements, tariffs and other non-tariff trade barriers, the availability and cost of credit, the availability of critical components needed to complete the production of vehicles, restructuring actions of our customers and suppliers, facility closures and increased competition, as well as consumer preferences regarding vehicle size, configuration and features, including alternative fuel vehicles, changing consumer attitudes toward vehicle ownership and usage, such as ride sharing and on-demand transportation, and other factors.
Due to the overall global economic conditions in 2019, the automotive industry experienced a decline in global customer sales and production volumes. In 2019, global vehicle production decreased 6% as compared to 2018. In Asia, vehicle production decreased 7%, including 9% in China and 11% in India. Vehicle production also decreased 4% in both North America and Europe and Africa. As a result, we have experienced and may continue to experience reductions in orders from our customers in certain regions. An economic downturn or other adverse industry conditions that result in a decline in the production levels of our major customers, particularly with respect to models for which we are a significant supplier, or the financial distress of one or more of our major customers could reduce our sales or otherwise adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows. Further, our ability to reduce the risks inherent in certain concentrations of business, and thereby maintain our financial performance in the future, will depend, in part, on our ability to continue to diversify our sales on a customer, product, platform and geographic basis to reflect the market overall. We may not be successful in such diversification.
The loss of business with respect to, or the lack of commercial success of, a vehicle model for which we are a significant supplier could adversely affect our financial performance.
We receive purchase orders from our customers, which generally provide for the supply of a customer’s annual requirements for a particular vehicle model and assembly plant or, in some cases, for the supply of a customer’s requirements for the life of a particular vehicle model, rather than for the purchase of a specific quantity of products. In addition, it is possible that our customers could elect to manufacture our products internally or increase the extent to which they require us to utilize specific suppliers or materials in the manufacture of our products. The loss of business with respect to, the lack of commercial success of or an increase in directed component sourcing for a vehicle model for which we are a significant supplier could reduce our sales or margins and thereby adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.

14



Our inability to achieve product cost reductions to offset customer-imposed price reductions could adversely affect our financial performance.
Downward pricing pressure by automotive manufacturers is a characteristic of the automotive industry. Our customer contracts generally provide for annual price reductions over the production life of the vehicle, while requiring us to assume significant responsibility for the design, development and engineering of our products. Prices may also be adjusted on an ongoing basis to reflect changes in product content/costs and other commercial factors. Our financial performance is largely dependent on our ability to achieve product cost reductions through product design enhancement and supply chain management, as well as manufacturing efficiencies and restructuring actions. We also seek to enhance our financial performance by investing in product development, design capabilities and new product initiatives that respond to the needs of our customers and consumers. We continually evaluate operational and strategic alternatives to align our business with the changing needs of our customers and improve our business structure by investing in vertical integration opportunities globally. Our inability to achieve product cost reductions that offset customer-imposed price reductions could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Increases in the costs and restrictions on the availability of raw materials, energy, commodities and product components could adversely affect our financial performance.
Raw material, energy and commodity costs can be volatile. Although we have developed and implemented strategies to mitigate the impact of higher raw material, energy and commodity costs, these strategies, together with commercial negotiations with our customers and suppliers, typically offset only a portion of the adverse impact. Certain of these strategies also may limit our opportunities in a declining commodity environment. In addition, the availability of raw materials, commodities and product components fluctuates from time to time due to factors outside of our control, including trade laws and tariffs. If the costs of raw materials, energy, commodities and product components increase or the availability thereof is restricted, it could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Adverse developments affecting or the financial distress of one or more of our suppliers could adversely affect our financial performance.
We obtain components and other products and services from numerous Tier 2 automotive suppliers and other vendors throughout the world. We are responsible for managing our supply chain, including suppliers that may be the sole sources of products that we require, that our customers direct us to use or that have unique capabilities that would make it difficult and/or expensive to re-source. In certain instances, entire industries may experience short-term capacity constraints. Additionally, our production capacity, and that of our customers and suppliers, may be adversely affected by natural disasters. Any such significant disruption could adversely affect our financial performance. Furthermore, unfavorable economic or industry conditions could result in financial distress within our supply base, thereby increasing the risk of supply disruption. An economic downturn or other unfavorable industry conditions in one or more of the regions in which we operate could cause a supply disruption and thereby adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Our substantial international operations make us vulnerable to risks associated with doing business in foreign countries.
As a result of our global presence, a significant portion of our revenues and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We have substantial manufacturing and distribution facilities in many foreign countries, including Mexico and countries in Africa, Asia, Central and South America and Europe. International operations are subject to certain risks inherent in doing business abroad, including:
exposure to local economic conditions;
political, economic and civil instability and uncertainty (including acts of terrorism, civil unrest, drug-cartel related and other forms of violence and outbreaks of war);
labor unrest;
expropriation and nationalization;
currency exchange rate fluctuations, currency controls and the ability to economically hedge currencies;
withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries;
investment restrictions or requirements;
repatriation restrictions or requirements;
export and import restrictions and increases in duties and tariffs;

15



concerns about human rights, working conditions and other labor rights and conditions and the environmental impact in foreign countries where our products are produced and raw materials and/or components are sourced, as well as changing labor, environmental and other laws in these countries;
pandemic illness;
increases in working capital requirements related to long supply chains; and
global sovereign fiscal matters and creditworthiness, including potential defaults and the related impacts on economic activity, including the possible effects on credit markets, currency values, monetary unions, international treaties and fiscal policies.
Expanding our sales and operations in Asia and our manufacturing operations in lower-cost regions are important elements of our strategy. As a result, our exposure to the risks described above is substantial. The likelihood of such occurrences and their potential effect on us vary from country to country and are unpredictable. However, any such occurrences could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
We operate in a highly competitive industry and efforts by our competitors, as well as new non-traditional entrants to the industry, to gain market share could adversely affect our financial performance.
We operate in a highly competitive industry. We and most of our competitors are seeking to expand market share with new and existing customers, including in Asia and other potential high growth regions. Our customers award business based on, among other things, price, quality, service and technology. Our competitors’ efforts to grow market share could exert downward pressure on our product pricing and margins. In addition, the automotive industry has attracted, and will continue to attract, non-traditional entrants as a result of the evolving nature of the automotive vehicle market, including autonomous vehicles, ride sharing and on-demand transportation. Further, the global automotive industry is experiencing a period of significant technological change, including a focus on environmentally sustainable products. As a result, the success of portions of our business requires us to develop, acquire and/or incorporate new technologies. Such technologies are subject to rapid obsolescence. Our inability to maintain access to these technologies (through development, acquisition or licensing) may adversely affect our ability to compete. If we are unable to differentiate our products, maintain a low-cost footprint or compete effectively with technology-focused new market entrants, we may lose market share or be forced to reduce prices, thereby lowering our margins. Any such occurrences could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
A significant labor dispute involving us or one or more of our customers or suppliers or that could otherwise affect our operations could adversely affect our financial performance.
A substantial number of our employees and the employees of our largest customers and suppliers are members of industrial trade unions and are employed under the terms of various labor agreements. We have labor agreements covering approximately 81,500 employees globally. In the United States and Canada, each of our unionized facilities has a separate collective bargaining agreement with the union that represents the workers at such facility, with each such agreement having an expiration date that is independent of the other agreements. Labor agreements covering approximately 88% of our global unionized work force, including labor agreements in the United States and Canada covering approximately 2% of our global unionized workforce, are scheduled to expire in 2020. There can be no assurances that future negotiations with the unions will be resolved favorably or that we will not experience a work stoppage or disruption that could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows. A labor dispute involving us, any of our customers or suppliers or any other suppliers to our customers or that otherwise affects our operations, or the inability by us, any of our customers or suppliers or any other suppliers to our customers to negotiate, upon the expiration of a labor agreement, an extension of such agreement or a new agreement on satisfactory terms could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows. In addition, if any of our significant customers experience a material work stoppage, such as the General Motors labor strike in the fall of 2019, that customer may halt or limit the purchase of our products. This could require us to shut down or significantly reduce production at facilities relating to such products, which could adversely affect our business and harm our profitability.
Certain of our operations are conducted through joint ventures which have unique risks.
Certain of our operations, particularly in emerging markets, are conducted through joint ventures. With respect to our joint ventures, we may share ownership and management responsibilities with one or more partners that may not share our goals and objectives. Operating a joint venture requires us to operate the business pursuant to the terms of the agreement that we entered into with our partners, including additional organizational formalities, as well as to share information and decision making. Additional risks associated with joint ventures include one or more partners failing to satisfy contractual obligations, conflicts arising between us and any of our partners, a change in the ownership of any of our partners and less of an ability to control compliance with applicable rules and regulations, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and

16



related rules and regulations. Additionally, our ability to sell our interest in a joint venture may be subject to contractual and other limitations. Accordingly, any such occurrences could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Our inability to effectively manage the timing, quality and costs of new program launches could adversely affect our financial performance.
In connection with the award of new business, we obligate ourselves to deliver new products and services that are subject to our customers’ timing, performance and quality standards. Additionally, as a Tier 1 supplier, we must effectively coordinate the activities of numerous suppliers in order for the program launches of our products to be successful. Given the complexity of new program launches, we may experience difficulties managing product quality, timeliness and associated costs. In addition, new program launches require a significant ramp up of costs; however, our sales related to these new programs generally are dependent upon the timing and success of our customers’ introduction of new vehicles. Our inability to effectively manage the timing, quality and costs of these new program launches could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Our existing indebtedness and the inability to access capital markets could restrict our business activities or our ability to execute our strategic objectives or adversely affect our financial performance.
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $2.3 billion of outstanding indebtedness, as well as $1.75 billion available for borrowing under our revolving credit facility. As of December 31, 2019, there were no amounts outstanding under our revolving credit facility. The debt instruments governing our indebtedness contain covenants that may restrict our business activities or our ability to execute our strategic objectives, and our failure to comply with these covenants could result in a default under our indebtedness. We also lease certain buildings and equipment under non-cancelable lease agreements with terms exceeding one year, which are accounted for as operating leases. Additionally, any downgrade in the ratings that rating agencies assign to us and our debt may ultimately impact our access to capital markets. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt and lease obligations, to refinance our debt obligations or to access capital markets on commercially reasonable terms could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Changes affecting the availability of the London Inter-bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") may have consequences for us that cannot yet be reasonably predicted.
We have outstanding debt with variable interest rates based on LIBOR. Advances under our revolving credit facility and our term loan facility generally bear interest based on (i) the Eurocurrency Rate (as defined in our credit agreement and calculated using LIBOR) or (ii) the ABR (as defined in our credit agreement). The LIBOR benchmark has been the subject of national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals to reform. In July 2017, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. These reforms may cause LIBOR to perform differently than it has in the past, and LIBOR may ultimately cease to exist after 2021. Alternative benchmark rates may replace LIBOR and could affect our debt securities, debt payments and receipts. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect of any changes to LIBOR, any phase out of LIBOR or any establishment of alternative benchmark rates. Any new benchmark rate will likely not replicate LIBOR exactly, which could impact our contracts that terminate after 2021. There is uncertainty about how applicable law and the courts will address the replacement of LIBOR with alternative rates on variable rate retail loan contracts and other contracts that do not include alternative rate fallback provisions. If LIBOR ceases to exist after 2021, the interest rates on our revolving credit facility and our term loan facility will be based on the ABR, which may result in higher interest rates. In addition, any changes to benchmark rates may have an uncertain impact on our cost of funds and our access to the capital markets, which could impact our results of operations and cash flows. Uncertainty as to the nature of such potential changes may also adversely affect the trading market for our securities.
Significant changes in discount rates, the actual return on pension assets and other factors could adversely affect our financial performance.
Our earnings may be positively or negatively impacted by the amount of income or expense recorded related to our global defined benefit plans. Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States require that income or expense related to the defined benefit plans be calculated at the annual measurement date using actuarial calculations, which reflect certain assumptions. The most significant of these assumptions relate to interest rates, the capital markets and other economic conditions. These assumptions, as well as the actual value of pension assets at the measurement date, will impact the calculation of pension and other postretirement benefit expense for the year. Although pension expense and pension contributions are not directly related, the key economic indicators that affect pension expense also affect the amount of cash that we will contribute to our pension plans. Because interest rates and the values of these pension assets

17



have fluctuated and will continue to fluctuate in response to changing market conditions, pension and other postretirement benefit expense in subsequent periods, the funded status of our pension plans and the future minimum required pension contributions, if any, could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Impairment charges relating to our goodwill and long-lived assets could adversely affect our financial performance.
We regularly monitor our goodwill and long-lived assets for impairment indicators. In conducting our goodwill impairment testing, we may first perform a qualitative assessment of whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying amount. If not, no further goodwill impairment testing is required. If it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying amount, or if we elect not to perform a qualitative assessment of a reporting unit, we then compare the fair value of the reporting unit to the related net book value. If the net book value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is measured and recognized. In conducting our impairment analysis of long-lived assets, we compare the undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the long-lived assets to the related net book values. Changes in economic or operating conditions impacting our estimates and assumptions could result in the impairment of our goodwill or long-lived assets. In the event that we determine that our goodwill or long-lived assets are impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings that could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
Our failure to execute our strategic objectives could adversely affect our financial performance.
Our financial performance depends, in part, on our ability to successfully execute our strategic objectives. Our objectives are to deliver superior long-term stockholder value by investing in our business to grow and improve our competitive position, while maintaining a strong and flexible balance sheet and returning cash to our stockholders. Various factors, including the industry environment and the other matters described herein and in Part II — Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," including "— Forward-Looking Statements," could adversely affect our ability to execute our strategic objectives. These risk factors include our failure to identify suitable opportunities for organic investment and/or acquisitions, our inability to successfully develop such opportunities or complete such acquisitions or our inability to successfully utilize or integrate the investments in our operations. Our failure to execute our strategic objectives could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows. Moreover, there can be no assurances that, even if implemented, our strategic objectives will be successful.
A disruption in our information technology systems, or those of our customers or suppliers, including a disruption related to cybersecurity, could adversely affect our financial performance.
We rely on the accuracy, capacity and security of our information technology networks. Despite the security measures that we have implemented, including those measures related to cybersecurity, our operational systems (including business, financial, accounting, human resources, product development and manufacturing processes), as well as those of our customers, suppliers and other service providers, and certain of our connected vehicle systems and components that may collect and store sensitive end-user data (which could include personally identifiable information) could be breached or damaged by computer viruses, malware, phishing attacks, denial-of-service attacks, human error, natural or man-made incidents or disasters or unauthorized physical or electronic access. These types of incidents have become more prevalent and pervasive across industries, including our industry, and are expected to continue in the future. The secure operation of our information technology networks, and the processing and maintenance of information by these networks, is critical to our operations and strategy. A breach could result in business disruption, including the vehicle systems and components that we supply to our customers or our plant operations, theft of our intellectual property, trade secrets or customer information or unauthorized access to personal information, such as that of our employees or end consumers of vehicles that contain certain of our connected vehicle systems or components. Although cybersecurity and the continued development and enhancement of our controls, processes and practices designed to protect our operational systems and products from attack, damage or unauthorized access are a high priority for us, our actions and investments may not be deployed quickly enough or successfully protect our systems against all vulnerabilities, including technologies developed to bypass our security measures. In addition, outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees or customers to disclose access credentials or other sensitive information in order to gain access to our secure systems and networks. There are no assurances that our actions and investments to improve the maturity of our systems, processes and risk management framework or remediate vulnerabilities will be sufficient or deployed quickly enough to prevent or limit the impact of any cyber intrusion or security breach. Moreover, because the techniques used to gain access to or sabotage systems often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate the methods necessary to defend against these types of attacks, and we cannot predict the extent, frequency or impact these attacks may have on us. To the extent that our business is interrupted, including the vehicle systems and components that we supply to our customers or our plant operations, or data is lost, destroyed or inappropriately used or disclosed, such disruptions could adversely affect our competitive position, relationships with our customers, financial condition, operating results and cash

18



flows and/or subject us to regulatory actions, including those contemplated by data privacy laws and regulations like the European Union General Data Privacy Regulation and California Consumer Privacy Act, or litigation. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against the damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future.
We are also dependent on security measures that some of our customers, suppliers and other third-party service providers take to protect their own systems and infrastructures. Any security breach of any of these third-parties' systems could result in unauthorized access to our or our customers’ or suppliers' sensitive data or our own information technology systems, cause us to be non-compliant with applicable laws or regulations, subject us to legal claims or proceedings, disrupt our operations, damage our reputation or cause a loss of confidence in our products or services, any of which could adversely affect our financial performance.
A significant product liability lawsuit, warranty claim or product recall involving us or one of our major customers could adversely affect our financial performance.
In the event that our products fail to perform as expected, regardless of fault, and such failure results in, or is alleged to result in, bodily injury and/or property damage or other losses, we may be subject to product liability lawsuits and other claims or we may be required or requested by our customers to participate in a recall or other corrective action involving such products. We also are a party to agreements with certain of our customers, whereby these customers may pursue claims against us for contribution of all or a portion of the amounts sought in connection with product liability and warranty claims. We carry insurance for certain product liability claims, but such coverage may be limited. We do not maintain insurance for product warranty or recall matters. In addition, we may not be successful in recovering amounts from third parties, including sub-suppliers, in connection with these claims. These types of claims could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
We are involved from time to time in various legal and regulatory proceedings and claims, which could adversely affect our financial performance.
We are involved in various legal and regulatory proceedings and claims that, from time to time, are significant. These are typically claims that arise in the normal course of business including, without limitation, commercial or contractual disputes, including disputes with our customers, suppliers or competitors, intellectual property matters, personal injury claims, environmental matters, tax matters, employment matters and antitrust matters. No assurances can be given that such proceedings and claims will not adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
New laws or regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations could adversely affect our financial performance.
We and the automotive industry are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations, including those related to health, safety and environmental matters. Governmental regulations also affect taxes and levies, capital markets, healthcare costs, energy usage, data privacy, international trade and immigration and other labor issues, all of which may have a direct or indirect effect on our business and the businesses of our customers and suppliers. We cannot predict the substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulations, or the application thereof. The introduction of new laws or regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations, or the interpretation thereof, could increase the costs of doing business for us or our customers or suppliers or restrict our actions and adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
We are subject to regulation of our international operations that could adversely affect our financial performance.
We are subject to many laws governing our international operations, including those that prohibit improper payments to government officials and restrict where we can do business and what information or products we can supply to certain countries, including but not limited to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.S. Export Administration Act. Violations of these laws, which are complex and often difficult to interpret and apply, could result in significant criminal penalties or sanctions that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
We are required to comply with environmental laws and regulations that could cause us to incur significant costs.
Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous laws and regulations designed to protect the environment, and we expect that additional requirements with respect to environmental matters will be imposed on us in the future. Material future expenditures may be necessary if compliance standards change or material unknown conditions that require remediation are discovered. Environmental laws could also restrict our ability to expand our facilities or could require us to acquire costly equipment or to incur other significant expenses in connection with our business. If we fail to comply with present and future environmental laws and regulations, we could be subject to future liabilities, which could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.

19



Developments or assertions by or against us relating to intellectual property rights could adversely affect our financial performance.
We own significant intellectual property, including a large number of patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets, and we are involved in numerous licensing arrangements. Our intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining our competitive position in a number of the markets that we serve. Developments or assertions by or against us relating to intellectual property rights could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Changes in U.S. administrative policy, including changes to existing trade agreements and any resulting changes in international relations, could adversely affect our financial performance.
As a result of changes to U.S. administrative policy, among other possible changes, there may be (i) changes to existing trade agreements; (ii) greater restrictions on free trade generally; and (iii) significant increases in tariffs on goods imported into the United States. The United States, Mexico and Canada signed the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement ("USMCA"), the successor agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement ("NAFTA"). It is expected that the USMCA will become effective by January 1, 2021. On January 15, 2020, the United States signed the "Phase 1" trade agreement with China. It remains unclear what the U.S. administration or foreign governments, including China, will or will not do with respect to tariffs, the USMCA or other international trade agreements and policies. A trade war, other governmental action related to tariffs or international trade agreements, changes in U.S. social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or in laws and policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, development and investment in the territories and countries where we currently manufacture and sell products or any resulting negative sentiments towards the United States could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Changes in the United Kingdom's economic and other relationships with the European Union could adversely affect us.
On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom formally withdrew from the European Union. Pursuant to the Withdrawal Agreement Bill, the United Kingdom will remain in the European Union's free market and customs union until December 31, 2020. On January 1, 2021, the United Kingdom will withdraw from the free market and customs union, and trade between the European Union and the United Kingdom will be subject to border controls. During the transition, the parties will negotiate a free trade agreement to manage future trade in goods and services. However, it is possible that an agreement will not be reached within the transition period, and there remains significant uncertainty about the terms of the future trade relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom.
We have significant operations in both the European Union and the United Kingdom. In 2019, our European Union (excluding the United Kingdom) and United Kingdom sales totaled $5.5 billion and $1.0 billion, respectively. Our supply chain and that of our customers are highly integrated across the European Union and the United Kingdom, and we are highly dependent on the free flow of goods in those regions. The ongoing uncertainty and imposition of border controls on trade between the European Union and the United Kingdom could negatively impact our competitive position, supplier and customer relationships and financial performance. The ultimate effects of the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union on us will depend on the specific terms of any agreement the European Union and the United Kingdom reach to provide future access to each other’s respective markets.
ITEM 1B – UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

20



ITEM 2 – PROPERTIES
As of December 31, 2019, our operations were conducted through 257 facilities, some of which are used for multiple purposes, including 83 just-in-time manufacturing facilities, 124 dedicated component manufacturing facilities, 5 sequencing and distribution sites, 36 administrative/technical support facilities and 9 advanced technology centers, in 39 countries. Our corporate headquarters is located in Southfield, Michigan.
Seating
Argentina
Czech Republic
India (continued)
Mexico (continued)
Romania
United Kingdom
Escobar, BA
Hranice
Pune
Monclova, CO
Iasi
Alfreton
Ferreyra, CBA
Kolin
Tijara
Nuevo Casas
Russia
Coventry
Belgium
Stribro
Indonesia
Grandes, CH
Kaluga
Redditch
Brussels
Dominican Republic
Cikarang
Panzacola, TL
Nizhny Novgorod
Sunderland
Brazil
Santo Domingo
Italy
Piedras Negras, CO
Slovak Republic
United States
Betim
France
Caivano, NA
Ramos Arizpe, CO
Presov
Arlington, TX
Caçapava
Feignies
Cassino, FR
Saltillo, CO
Voderady
Columbia City, IN
Joinville
Herblay
Grugliasco, TO
San Felipe, GU
South Africa
Detroit, MI
Pernambuco
Jarney
Melfi, PZ
San Luis Potosi, SL
East London
Duncan, SC
São Bernardo
Roche La Moliere
Pozzo d’Adda, MI
Silao, GO
Port Elizabeth
Farwell, MI
Canada
Germany
Macedonia
Toluca, MX
South Korea
Flint, MI
Ajax, ON
Besigheim
Tetovo
Villa Ahumada, CH
Gyeongju
Hammond, IN
China
Bremen
Malaysia
Moldova
Spain
Hebron, OH
Beijing
Eisenach
Behrang Stesen
Ungheni
Barcelona
Kenansville, NC
Changshu
Ginsheim-
Mexico
Morocco
Burgos
Louisville, KY
Chongqing
Gustavsburg
Arteaga, CA
Kenitra
Epila
Montgomery, AL
Hangzhou
Rietberg
Ascension, CH
Tangier
Martorell
Morristown, TN
Liuzhou
Wackersdorf
Cuautlancingo, PU
Poland
O Porrino
Pine Grove, PA
Nanjing
Hungary
Fresnillo, ZA
Bierun
Valencia
Rochester Hills, MI
Rui’an
Györ
Hermosillo, SO
Jaroslaw
Vigo
Roscommon, MI
Shanghai
Szolnok
Huamantla, TL
Legnica
Vitoria
Selma, AL
Shenyang
India
Juarez, CH
Tychy
Thailand
Tuscaloosa, AL
Wuhan
Chennai
Leon, GT
Portugal
Mueang Nakhon
Wentzville, MO
Wuhu
Halol
Meoqui, CH
Mangualde
Ratchasima
Vietnam
Yangzhou
Haridwar
Mexico City, DF
Valenca
Rayong
Hai Phong City
 
Nasik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
E-Systems
Argentina
China (continued)
Germany
Mexico
Poland
Spain
Pacheco, BA
Chongqing
Bersenbrueck
Apodaca, NL
Mielec
Almussafes
San Francisco,
KunShan HuaQiao
Kronach
Chihuahua, CH
Romania
Valls
CBA
Shanghai
Puttlingen
Juarez, CH
Campulung
Thailand
Brazil
SuiNing
Wismar
Torreon, CA
Pitesti
Kabin Buri
Camanducaia
TianJin
Honduras
Morocco
Serbia
United States
Navegantes
Wuhan
Naco
Kenitra
Novi Sad
Bellevue, WA
China
Yangzhou
Hungary
Salé Al-Jadida
South Africa
Plymouth, IN
Changchun
Czech Republic
Gödöllö
Tangier
Port Elizabeth
Traverse City, MI
 
Vyskov
Japan
Philippines
 
 
 
 
Tokyo
Lapu-Lapu City
 
 
 
Administrative/Technical
Australia
France
India
Japan (continued)
Singapore
United States
Essendon Fields
Vélizy-
Gurgaon
Tokyo
South Korea
Ann Arbor, MI
Belgium
Villacoublay
Pune
Yokohama
Seoul
Detroit, MI
Leuven
Germany
Israel
Malaysia
Spain
El Paso, TX
Brazil
Cologne
Tel Aviv
Klang
Valls
Rochester Hills, MI
São Paulo
Korntal-
Italy
Mexico
Sweden
San Mateo, CA
China
Münchingen
Grugliasco, TO
Juarez, CH
Gothenburg
Southfield, MI
Shanghai
Remscheid
Japan
Netherlands
Thailand
Sparta, MI
Czech Republic
Schwaig-Oberding
Hiroshima
Hilversum
Bangkok
Wilmington, NC
Brno
Sindelfingen
Kariya
Philippines
United Kingdom
 
Pilsen
Wolfsburg
Nagoya
Lapu-Lapu City
Coventry
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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ITEM 3 – LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Legal and Environmental Matters
We are involved from time to time in various legal proceedings and claims, including, without limitation, commercial or contractual disputes, product liability claims and environmental and other matters. For a description of risks related to various legal proceedings and claims, see Item 1A, "Risk Factors." For a description of our outstanding material legal proceedings, see Note 13, "Commitments and Contingencies," to the consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
ITEM 4 – MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
None.
SUPPLEMENTARY ITEM – INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following table sets forth the names, ages and positions of our executive officers. Executive officers are appointed annually by our Board of Directors and serve at the pleasure of our Board.
Name
Age
Position
Shari L. Burgess
61
Vice President and Treasurer
Jason M. Cardew
49
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Alicia J. Davis
49
Senior Vice President, Corporate Development and Investor Relations
Thomas A. DiDonato
61
Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer
Amy A. Doyle
52
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
Carl A. Esposito
52
Senior Vice President and President, E-Systems
Harry A. Kemp
44
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Frank C. Orsini
47
Executive Vice President and President, Seating
Raymond E. Scott
54
President and Chief Executive Officer
Set forth below is a description of the business experience of each of our executive officers.
Shari L. Burgess
Ms. Burgess is the Company’s Vice President and Treasurer, a position she has held since August 2002. Ms. Burgess previously served as the Company’s Vice President, Treasurer and Chief Diversity Officer from January 2014 to May 2018 and in various financial roles since joining the Company in 1992. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Burgess served as the corporate controller for Victor International Corporation and as an audit manager for Ernst & Young LLP.
 
 
Jason M. Cardew
Mr. Cardew is the Company’s Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, a position he has held since November 2019. Mr. Cardew most recently served as the Company's Vice President, Finance - Seating and E-Systems since September 2018. Prior to that, he served as the Company's Vice President, Finance - Seating since April 2012. Previously, he served as the Company's Vice President and Interim Chief Financial Officer since September 2011, Vice President, Finance - Financial Planning and Analysis since April 2010, Vice President, Finance - Seating since 2008, Vice President - Finance since 2003 and in various financial roles since joining the Company in 1992.
 
 
Alicia J. Davis
Ms. Davis is the Company's Senior Vice President, Corporate Development and Investor Relations, a position she has held since September 2019. Ms. Davis most recently served as the Company's Vice President, Investor Relations, since joining the Company in August 2018. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Davis was on the faculty at the University of Michigan Law School since June 2004, where she most recently served as a professor and the Associate Dean for Strategic Initiatives. Previous to that, she was a lawyer at Kirkland & Ellis since June 2002, a Vice President at Raymond James & Associates since August 1999 and an Investment Banking Analyst at Goldman Sachs from August 1993 to June 1995.
 
 

22



Thomas A. DiDonato
Mr. DiDonato is the Company’s Senior Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer, a position he has held since January 2019. Mr. DiDonato most recently served as the Company's Senior Vice President, Human Resources since joining the Company in April 2012. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. DiDonato served as Executive Vice President, Human Resources for American Eagle Outfitters, Inc. since 2005, Chief People Officer for H.J. Heinz from April 2004 to July 2005 and Senior Vice President, Human Resources for Heinz North America from July 2001 to April 2004. Earlier experiences include directing human resources for a $14 billion division of Merck & Co. and heading worldwide staffing for Pepsico. Mr. DiDonato began his career at General Foods Corporation and moved up to manage the personnel at its largest manufacturing facility.
 
 
Amy A. Doyle
Ms. Doyle is the Company’s Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer, a position she has held since May 2017. Ms. Doyle most recently served as the Company’s Assistant Corporate Controller since September 2006. Previously, she served in positions of increasing responsibility at the Company, including Director, Financial Reporting since 2003 and Manager, Financial Reporting since joining the Company in 1999. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Doyle served as an audit manager for Arthur Andersen LLP.
 
 
Carl A. Esposito
Mr. Esposito is the Company’s Senior Vice President and President, E-Systems, a position he has held since joining the Company in September 2019. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Esposito served at Honeywell Aerospace, a division of Honeywell International Inc., as President of the Electronic Solutions Strategic Business Unit from January 2017 to July 2019 and at Honeywell International Inc. as Vice President of Aerospace Marketing, Product Management and Strategy since December 2010, Vice President of Avionics Systems Marketing and Product Management since December 2009, Vice President of Global Business Aviation Sales and EMEAI Customer Support since January 2007 and in various other roles since 1990.
 
 
Harry A. Kemp
Mr. Kemp is the Company's Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, a position he has held since August 2019. Mr. Kemp most recently served as the Company's Vice President and Corporate Counsel since January 2019. Previously, he served as the Company's Vice President and Divisional Counsel - Seating since September 2016 and Vice President and Divisional Counsel - E-Systems since joining the Company in December 2009. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Kemp was a partner at Bodman PLC since 2003 and served as an engagement manager at McKinsey and Company, a global management consulting firm, since 2000.
 
 
Frank C. Orsini
Mr. Orsini is the Company’s Executive Vice President and President, Seating, a position he has held since March 2018. Mr. Orsini most recently served as the Company’s Senior Vice President and President, E-Systems since September 2012. Prior to that, he served as the Company's Vice President and Interim President, E-Systems since October 2011. Previously, he served as the Company’s Vice President, Operations, E-Systems since 2009, Vice President, Sales, Program Management & Manufacturing, E-Systems since 2008, Vice President, North America Seating Operations since 2005 and in various other management positions for the Company since joining the Company in 1994.
 
 
Raymond E. Scott
Mr. Scott is the Company’s President and Chief Executive Officer, a position he has held since March 2018. Mr. Scott most recently served as the Company’s Executive Vice President and President, Seating since November 2011. Prior to that, he served as the Company’s Senior Vice President and President, E-Systems since February 2008. Previously, he served as the Company’s Senior Vice President and President, North American Seat Systems Group since August 2006, Senior Vice President and President, North American Customer Group since June 2005, President, European Customer Focused Division since June 2004 and President, General Motors Division since November 2000.

23



PART II
ITEM 5 – MARKET FOR THE COMPANY’S COMMON EQUITY,
RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "LEA."
Dividends
We currently expect to pay quarterly cash dividends in the future, although such payments are at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, alternative uses of capital and other factors that our Board of Directors may consider at its discretion. See Part II — Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Forward-Looking Statements," and Note 11, "Capital Stock, Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss and Equity," to the consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
Holders of Common Stock
The Transfer Agent and Registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A., located in Canton, Massachusetts. On January 31, 2020, there were 152 registered holders of record of our common stock.
For certain information regarding our equity compensation plans, see Part III — Item 12, "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters — Equity Compensation Plan Information."
Common Stock Share Repurchase Program
Since the first quarter of 2011, our Board of Directors has authorized $5.8 billion in share repurchases under our common stock share repurchase program. As of December 31, 2019, we have a remaining repurchase authorization of $1.2 billion, which will expire on December 31, 2021.
We may implement our share repurchases through a variety of methods, including, but not limited to, open market purchases, accelerated stock repurchase programs and structured repurchase transactions. The extent to which we will repurchase our outstanding common stock and the timing of such repurchases will depend upon our financial condition, prevailing market conditions, alternative uses of capital and other factors. See Part II — Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Forward-Looking Statements," and Note 11, "Capital Stock, Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss and Equity," to the consolidated financial statements included in this Report.
As of December 31, 2019, we have paid $4.6 billion in aggregate for repurchases of our outstanding common stock, at an average price of $89.83 per share, excluding commissions and related fees, since the first quarter of 2011. A summary of the shares of our common stock repurchased during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2019, is shown below:
Period
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
 
Average
Price Paid
per Share
 
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced 
Plans or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar
Value of Shares that
May Yet be Purchased
Under the Program
(in millions)
September 29, 2019 through October 26, 2019
205,600

 
$
116.09

 
205,600

 
$
1,203.8

October 27, 2019 through November 23, 2019
9,600

 
124.83

 
9,600

 
1,202.6

November 24, 2019 through December 31, 2019

 

 

 
1,202.6

Total
215,200

 
$
116.48

 
215,200

 
$
1,202.6



24



Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return from December 31, 2014 through December 31, 2019, for our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and a peer group(1) of companies that we have selected for purposes of this comparison. We have assumed that dividends have been reinvested, and the returns of each company in the S&P 500 Index and the peer group have been weighted to reflect relative stock market capitalization. The graph below assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2014, in each of our common stock, the stocks comprising the S&P 500 Index and the stocks comprising the peer group.
https://cdn.kscope.io/c8fd0e50163df889f8234f8844c1b911-lear2019stockgraph.jpg
 
 
December 31,
2014
 
December 31,
2015
 
December 31,
2016
 
December 31,
2017
 
December 31,
2018
 
December 31,
2019
Lear Corporation
 
$
100.00

 
$
126.35

 
$
137.57

 
$
186.01

 
$
131.53

 
$
150.42

S&P 500
 
$
100.00

 
$
101.37

 
$
113.49

 
$
138.26

 
$
132.19

 
$
173.80

Peer Group (1)
 
$
100.00

 
$
91.79

 
$
92.07

 
$
124.50

 
$
84.25

 
$
113.11

(1)
We do not believe that there is a single published industry or line of business index that is appropriate for comparing stockholder returns. As a result, we have selected a peer group comprised of representative independent automotive suppliers whose common stock is publicly traded. Our peer group, referenced in the graph above, consists of Adient plc, American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings Inc., Aptiv PLC, BorgWarner Inc., Dana Holding Corporation, Gentex Corp., Magna International, Inc., Superior Industries International, Inc., Tenneco Inc. and Visteon Corporation.


25



ITEM 6 – SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following statement of operations, statement of cash flows and balance sheet data were derived from our consolidated financial statements. Our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP. The selected financial data below should be read in conjunction with Item 7, "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in this Report.
For the year ended December 31,
2019 (1)
 
2018 (2)
 
2017 (3)
 
2016 (4)
 
2015 (5)
Income Statement: (in millions) (6)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
$
19,810.3

 
$
21,148.5

 
$
20,467.0

 
$
18,557.6

 
$
18,211.4

Gross profit
1,737.5

 
2,318.3

 
2,291.1

 
2,122.6

 
1,819.8

Selling, general and administrative expenses
605.0

 
612.8

 
635.2

 
608.2

 
580.5

Amortization of intangible assets
62.3

 
51.4

 
47.6

 
53.0

 
52.5

Interest expense
92.0

 
84.1

 
85.7

 
82.5

 
86.7

Other (income) expense, net (7)
24.6

 
31.6

 
(4.1
)
 
40.6

 
68.6

Consolidated income before provision for income taxes and equity in net income of affiliates
953.6


1,538.4


1,526.7


1,338.3


1,031.5

Provision for income taxes
146.1

 
311.9

 
197.5

 
370.2

 
285.5